The Sunday Mail
Law Of Demand: The law of demand states that other factors being constant (cetris peribus), price and quantity demand of any good and service are inversely related to each other. When the price of a product increases, the demand for the same product will fall.
Law of demand explains consumer choice behaviour when the price changes. In the market, assuming other factors affecting demand being constant, when the price of a good rises, it leads to a fall in the demand of that good. This is the natural consumer choice behaviour. This happens because a consumer hesitates to spend more for the good with the fear of going out of cash.
Law Of Supply: Law of supply states that other factors remaining constant, price and quantity supplied of a good are directly related to each other. In other words, when the price paid by buyers for a good rises, then suppliers increase the supply of that good in the market.
Law of supply depicts the producer behaviour at the time of changes in the prices of goods and services. When the price of a good rises, the supplier increases the supply in order to earn a profit because of higher prices.
Venture Capital: Start up companies with a potential to grow need a certain amount of investment. Wealthy investors like to invest their capital in such businesses with a long-term growth perspective. This capital is known as venture capital and the investors are called venture capitalists. Such investments are risky as they are illiquid, but are capable of giving impressive returns if invested in the right venture. The returns to the venture capitalists depend upon the growth of the company. Venture capitalists have the power to influence major decisions of the companies they are investing in as it is their money at stake.
Capital Account: Capital account can be regarded as one of the primary components of the balance of payments of a nation. It gives a summary of the capital expenditure and income for a country. The capital expenditure and income is tracked by way of funds in the form of investments and loans flowing in and out of an economy. This account comprises foreign direct investments, portfolio investments, etc. It gives a summary of the net flow of both private and public investment into an economy.
A capital account deficit shows that more money is flowing out of the economy along with increase in its ownership of foreign assets and vice-versa in case of a surplus. The balance of payments contains the current account (which provides a summary of the trade of goods and services) in addition to the capital account which records all capital transactions.
Capital Market: Capital market is a market where buyers and sellers engage in trade of financial securities like bonds, stocks, etc. The buying/selling is undertaken by participants such as individuals and institutions.
Capital markets help channelise surplus funds from savers to institutions which then invest them into productive use. Generally, this market trades mostly in long-term securities. Capital market consists of primary markets and secondary markets. Primary markets deal with trade of new issues of stocks and other securities, whereas secondary market deals with the exchange of existing or previously-issued securities. Another important division in the capital market is made on the basis of the nature of security traded, i.e. stock market and bond market.
Market Capitalisation: Market capitalisation is the aggregate valuation of the company based on its current share price and the total number of outstanding stocks. It is calculated by multiplying the current market price of the company’s share with the total outstanding shares of the company. Market capitalisation is one of the most important characteristics that helps the investor determine the returns and the risk in the share. It also helps the investors choose the stock that can meet their risk and diversification criterion.
Secondary Market: This is the market wherein the trading of securities is done. Secondary market consists of both equity as well as debt markets.
Securities issued by a company for the first time are offered to the public in the primary market. Once the IPO is done and the stock is listed, they are traded in the secondary market. The main difference between the two is that in the primary market, an investor gets securities directly from the company through IPOs, while in the secondary market, one purchases securities from other investors willing to sell the same.